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Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance: Causes and Remedies

Authors : Najmul Haque Barbhuiya, Deepjyoti Das and Asok Adak



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Abstract

The residuals of pharma wastes have been found to be present in wastewater, surface water, aquifers and even in potable water from treatment plants. The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been observed to increase and spread, primarily because of misuse and overuse of antibiotics, thereby threatening our public health, global economy and development. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which microbes are getting resistant, are changing and evolving continuously in an uninterrupted manner. If necessary actions are not taken soon enough to attenuate and arrest the antimicrobial resistance, it can lead to a situation where even the common diseases can become fatal. An attempt has been made in the present review to combine the reported causals (like release of active antibiotics from aquaculture and pharmaceutical companies, human and animal wastes etc.) and carriers (bacteriophages, imported animals, livestock insects, birds etc.) of AMR. In addition, this review also discusses some of the proposed tools, steps and methods (Re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics, microfluidics, use of alternatives for antimicrobials) to fight AMR.
 

 

Keyword

Antibiotics, antimicrobials, resistance, pharmaceuticals, pharma wastes.